An Ever-Growing City
The city was one of the wealthiest cities of Europe during the sixteenth century. However, it suffered from the plague in 1603 and 1625. Nevertheless, London’s prosperity continued thanks to various economic development that occurred at this time. During the seventeenth century, Great Britain started to develop its colonial power. In 1666, a fire destroyed much of London. The reconstruction effort led to a redesign of the medieval city. In 1707, England and Scotland joined together with the Act of Union.
In 1800, Parliament gave more power to industrialists, My City of London (mycityoflondon.co.uk). Great Britain built up its navy power as well. During the eighteenth century, when similar industrial cities (like Manchester) appeared, London became one of the most important cities in the world. It was the time when London became a manufacturing center for various industries, like metal-works, ceramics, and brick-making. With the advent of the steam engine, London also became an important center for rail transportation by mid-century.
As a result of this economic activity, London became the first city in Europe. The population also spread out, causing its expansion. By 1500, London was populated by 80 thousand inhabitants. The construction of Trinity House in 1514 allowed the evolution of navigation. Vital trade routes could be studied and charted, which helped to increase international prosperity. London was an important port which was used to export goods such as timber and coal from the British Isles and imports from the continent.
Unlike today, London's population wasn't concentrated in the central area but dispersed between the centre and the suburbs. In the sixteenth century, Londondecided to open its ports and allowed the entrance of foreign goods. It also became an important center of seafaring. This is how it got the nickname of an “ever-growing city. ”. The Docklands Light Railway also runs every 15 minutes on Friday and Saturday nights between 12:30am to 4:30am in both directions.
Public holidays might be a debatable topic. Is a day a holiday because the government officially designates it as a holiday, or is it because it’s a national celebration? My answer: it doesn’t really matter – officially or not, people observe these days as holidays. And what’s more, more than you think. The following infographic reveals some surprising public holidays that may affect your travel plans. public holidays. These are days on which people in a country who follow certain religionsare not expected to work, and therefore public transport is likely to run in a reduced capacityor not at all.
For example, children in Israel go to school for one day less during the weekfollowing 2nd day of Passover (this holiday is currently at the end of March) and there is no publictransport that day. Public holidays are days that a nation celebrates. Such days are usually outside of the working week, and they are treated differently from other non-holiday days, as there may be limitations on certain behaviors. Some public holidays are even taken to excess by some believers (think Emperor Pu Yi in China).
If you travel frequently, then you understand how important it is to know in advance when a country has a public holiday so you can plan your trip accordingly. Areas and neighbourhoods. London has 33 districts. Find out about the city's most popular areas and neighbourhoods. London has 33 districts. Find out about the city's most popular areas and neighbourhoods. The service was introduced following a successful trial in 2014 which ran throughout the duration of the London Design Festival.
18Th Century London
The Act of Union included a clause to abolish the Scottish Parliament and effectively make the Westminster Parliament for the entire UK. However, after much debate, it was decided that this would lead to too much hostility between England and Scotland if they had no parliament to represent their interests so a solution was found. The Act of Union could be considered one of the most significant events in the country's history. The decision was made primarily for political reasons which is what compelled the act to be passed through both the English and Scottish parliaments.
Stuart London (1603 1714)
The Stuarts were perhaps the most popular English monarchy of all. They were kings in a time when the King's powers were carefully limited by parliament, and this did not go against their interest at all. The Stuart kings used the full force of their personality and reserves to great effect. They did not lack political skills and proved to be outstanding statesmen earning great love from their subjects but also hatred of other political factions, that tried to get rid of them through several rebellions (1608 – 1688).
The Stuart period would last about a hundred years, the end had already been announced as the Mad King, Charles I was executed in 1649 and a slow restoration of the monarchy began. But the country was still divided between monarchists and republicans. During those 100 years the country endured civil war, economic downturns, repression and political instability, it was a dangerous time to live in England. James, the first King of both countries, abandoned the initial politics of his predecessor which was anti-Catholicism and instead restored peace between the protestants and the Catholics.
This pleased almost everyone at the time. James I was to prove himself as one of the greatest writers of all time in 1605 when he wrote his masterpieces The Trew Law of Free Monarchies and Basilicon Doron. Stuart London or the London of the Stuarts, this is when the capital city of England started to get the aspect we nowadays associate with it. It is believed that the great fire of London in 1666 had a huge role in shaping up the city and clearing spaces for urban development.
Stuart London is the period in the history of London, England, between 1603 (when James I became King of England) and 1714 (when George I became king), during which time the capital grew to become the largest city in Europe. The Kingdom of Great Britain included the newly acquired territory of England, as well as Wales and Ireland. The Scotland Parliament became the Parliament of Great Britain, meeting at Westminster in London – where it remains to this day.
The Great Stink
In the summer of 1858, an unusually hot and dry summer, the city was affected by a major stinking smog from the polluted River Thames. Leading up to this Mayor of London in 1856 (and again in 1857) had offered a reward for anyone who could solve the issue with pollution from the river and unfortunately, one man claimed it Edwin Chadwick. His plans suggested replacing many of the water closets used over ground sewers in homes, for those using underground ones.
The initial plan was accepted but its roll out would take longer than first thought and by the end of 1858 there were still major problems with pollution from the river that flowed through London. To the present day London is considered to be one of the most naturally beautiful cities in the world, but back in the 1850s it was a very different story. A combination of industrialisation, extensive building work and poor sanitation had turned much of the capital into an open sewer.
People suffered from a constant smell of human waste, and over 60,000 people were thought to have died from cholera. Writer Charles Dickens described it ‘As if the Great Stink hadn’t been bad enough’ and others thought that inhabitants of London town were living inside a gigantic open grave. In 1858, The Great Stink occurred. It was so bad that Parliament considered relocating to Manchester or Birmingham! This confirmed to people the need for a solution.
In 1859, The Metropolitan Board of Works enacted a local Act of Parliament to create the Metropolitan Commission of Sewers. Over the next 40 years sewers were built throughout London, and by 1904 the majority of people no longer lived in unhealthy conditions. The Metropolitans solution was to buy out the local parishes near the Thames and create a state of the art system which pumped sewage from the River Thames up into tanks which would collect it, and on a set day each week, boats known as nightsoil men would come by, and pick up the tanks contents.
The sewage would then be taken away to processing plants where it could be recycled. In 1854, the people of London awoke to the devastating smell that engulfed the city. Houses were covered in a thick ooze, clothes were stained with gutter water, and even the milder winds carried the stench over London. This was the Great Stink, caused by a combination of untreated human and animal waste that was flowing through open sewers into water supply.
The 'Great Stink'was a period of hot weather in the summer of 1858, when the smell of untreated human waste was so bad it created havoc within the Houses of Parliament and forced MPs to adjourn debates. The Mayor issued a warning that if something wasn't done, the funds would have to be diverted from finding work for the unemployed poor. Although the Union was agreed to be formed by both countries, England had most influence on the political unions and this also made the Kingdom become more centralized with power shifting away from Scottish noblemen.